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Guidance for Reception Parents - Letters and Sounds Phase 2

Letters and Sounds – Parental Guidance for those who have children in Reception studying Phase Two phonics.

In Rhiwbeina Primary School we follow the DfES programme Letters and Sounds to deliver systematic phonics which enables your child to learn to read, write and spell.


Letters and Sounds is split into six phases and starts at phase one and finishes at phase six. Phase one begins in Nursery and it progresses through each phase until it reaches the end in Year 2.


In Reception we have been following phase two and working our way through the different aspects (as listed below). The activities can be found on pages 46-71 within the DfES Letters and Sounds document. The document can be downloaded from the following website 


What is Phase Two?

Phase two is where children learn the letter sounds that make phonemes (the smallest unit of sound e.g. ‘s’ ‘a’ ‘t’) There are 44 sounds in all however phase two only covers the most common single letter sounds and is usually taught over a period of six weeks. These sets of letter sounds introduced each week (listed below) makes the letter sounds more achievable for children to learn and follows a set order so that they can word build early on. Don’t be tempted to choose letters at random as it doesn’t allow them to always apply what they have learnt in such an early stage in their phonics.


By the end of phase two children should be able to read vowel-consonant (VC) and consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words and spell them out. They also learn some high frequency words (HFW) and ‘tricky words’ which you cannot sound out such as ‘the’ and ‘go’. Children also learn that ‘I’ and ‘a’ are single letter words, not a sound.


Phase 2

Sounds Introduced

HFW introduced

Week 1

s, a, t, p

a, an, as

Week 2

i, n, m, d

is, it, in, at, I

Week 3

g, o, c, k

on, not, and, into

Week 4

ck, e, u, r

get, got, the, to

Week 5

h, b, f, ff, l

no, go, his, him

Week 6

ll, ss

Dad, Mum, up, if, of

Assessment week

No new sounds given

big, but, come, here


Phase two continues to build on the oral blending and segmenting as introduced in phase one. If you would like more information on phase one, please see the Nursery Home Learning page where parental guidance is given for this section.


What are High Frequency Words (HFWs) and why are they important?

High frequency words are words that are very common words, words that appear frequently within reading texts for example. Some high frequency words are ‘decodable’ meaning that they can be sounded out. Other HFWs are ‘tricky’ and means that children have to recognise them purely by sight. 


These are a very important part of phonics as they make up a large proportion of the words that they will read and write. It is often a common reason why it takes children longer to move to the next band level in reading between pink and red level books is related to HFW knowledge.


Children also need to be able to spell these words as they will use them in their writing regularly. If your child is able to read them then the expectation is that they need to then be able to write them. Children can often do this in isolation, however if you ask them to put it into a three-word sentence spelling can often drop off at Phase two unless these are embedded as they are busy learning how to construct sentences among applying other phonic knowledge.


What is Oral Blending and Segmenting?

Blending involves pulling together individual sounds within words.  Segmenting is breaking words down into individual sounds. 

These skills are essential in order for your child to read and write. It takes a lot of practise to master blending and segmenting both orally and with written words.  When learning to blend and segment a lot of modelling from the adult is required.  For example, when blending you as the adult would clearly say aloud the individual sounds s-a-t.  Then repeat again a little quicker, and again even quicker until the sounds become merged and a word can be heard. With segmenting you do the opposite. For example, say the cvc words such as ‘man’ aloud, then say the word very slowly as if you are stretching out and continue to do this until the individual sounds are clear.  Both blending and segmenting take a lot of practise but the great thing is that you can do it anywhere – at home or when you are out taking a walk.  


Within phase two children are now expected to not only blend and segment orally but to do this with their writing also.


What about Jolly Phonics?

We use Jolly Phonics to help teach your child the individual letter sounds in Nursery and continue this in Reception for phase two.  Every sound has a story, action and song. These can be found online and are a great way of helping children to learn and embed the letter sounds. Actions in particular play an important role when learning phonics.


The Jolly Phonic Songs can be found here:


Here is the list of actions:


Please note however that we do not follow the Jolly Phonics scheme, only the letter sound actions, stories and songs for introduction.


How is Letters and Sounds taught in Phase Two?

Your child is taught phonics daily through a well-planned and thorough twenty-minute input. The input is pacey and focuses on all children being active learners. Equipped with whiteboards and dry-wipe pens children can engage in phonics. Within each session they will always follow the same structure which is essential to learning phonics at this level: Introduction - Revisit and Review - Teach - Practice - Apply.


Introduction A quick outline of what the children will be learning and what you would like them to have learnt by the end of the phonics lesson.

Revisit and ReviewChildren need to consistently revisit the letter sounds they have learnt (this number of letter sounds increases over time – do not introduce all in one go as this overwhelms them at the beginning of their phase two journey). Children also recap the HFWs that they have learnt.  Both of these are most commonly done through flashcards, making any corrections to pronunciations as they go.  After recap the children then have the opportunity to play games such as ‘quickwrite letters’ (page 55)’, ‘Georgie’s Gym’ (page 55) or ‘I spy’ to help recap in more fun ways.

Teach – Children are taught new HFWs at the beginning of the week and revisit these daily. They are then taught the new sounds of the day. On a Friday children recap using all the sounds that they have learnt this week and focus on any that are particularly challenging.

Practice – Children have time to practice what they have learnt. We play sorting games, sound talk, talking like a robot to blend and segment words, and a range of other phonic based games. As the children make their way through the phonics programme, we then often use phoneme frames to help children understand how to make vc or cvc words using their letter sounds learnt to date. They can also play games for example which helps them identify initial letter sounds online in groups.

Apply – This is the last part of the session where children pull together what they have learnt new today with other skills taught up until today. Initially children play games which are child-led and unassisted for them to think about and apply their knowledge. As they progress through the weeks, they may write a short three-word sentence or they could read a simple short decodable sentence. It is alternated throughout the week for variety and to maintain interest.


After phonics teaching has been taught children are given the opportunity to use different hands-on activities within the classroom both independently and supported that help to practise and embed what they have been taught. There is a link at the bottom of this page to Pinterest to help give lots of ideas of how you could do this if you would like to.


What can I do at home?

The most important thing to remember is to make whatever activities you do with your child fun, engaging and as hands-on as possible – you don’t need to sit at a table and complete worksheets to learn. In phase two you will find that there are plenty of worksheet-based activities available online that you can complete but the more engaging it can be the more effective the learning is that takes place. Play games that you may have at home for educational purposes focusing on using a range of language and identifying the cvc words, initial or last sounds in words to identify, use online resources (websites that you may like to use are listed below) and talk lots in whatever you do! Use the link at the bottom of the page

Don’t forget to use the Letters and Sounds document, pages 46-71 which you can follow to help your child’s phonic learning at home during the Corona Virus outbreak. The document looks wordy – please don’t be put off by this! When you get to the activities these are broken down into small easy-to-read paragraphs. You can also adapt these ideas or use them to develop your own, but it is a great way to get started.


Please take a look at the ways in which we teach letter sounds to our children. It is a very common mistake that parents and caregivers teach children the letter names and capital letters, when in fact it must be the letter sounds and lowercase letters. The pronunciation is also an extremely common error, with many children also adding an -uh sound onto lots of letter sounds. As teachers we review our pronunciation throughout the year to ensure we don’t slip into bad phonic habits as it is so easily done. Take a look…we are sure some of the sounds may surprise you!


Where do I start during the Corona Virus Outbreak?

Take a look at the activities we will set for you each academic week on the website. We will also load the blending and segmenting sets weekly as your child would have had when in school every Friday which will help you practice words using the sounds sets taught to date. These are all set by your Reception teachers and will give you a good idea of what you could be doing with your child to support their phonics and they will give you any links you may need to deliver this at home where possible.


Use the Letters and Sounds document as a good resource bank. Follow the outline of a teaching session above if you feel able to do so following the letter sounds and HFWs given for the week by the Reception Teachers.


Look online – there are so many great interactive ideas for phase two phonics, including websites with games to help. Some of these have been listed below.  Please be careful though – American websites are plentiful but pronounce letter sounds inaccurately for the UK curriculum. Try to stick to UK sites where possible.


Websites you might like to try…


Twinkl – Twinkl are granting one month’s free access during the Corona Virus outbreak if you use the code ‘CVDTWINKLHELPS‘ when you sign up for an account. Please note that Rhiwbeina Primary School will not be liable for any costs incurred for using this site. This is not an endorsement, just a useful link to some valuable educational resources that you may like to access. Some of the Phase One resources are interactive games, others you can print off and use as games in the home.


Letters and Sounds – This website is free to access and supports the Letters and Sounds phonics program but is not the same as the phonics scheme we use. This simply provides resources to go with it.


Phonics Play – this can be used for free during the corona virus outbreak if you sign in using the username ‘march20’ and password ‘home’. Again, please note that Rhiwbeina Primary School will not be liable for any costs incurred for using this site. This is not an endorsement, just a useful link to some games.


Phonics BLOOM has interactive games you can use for free which supports phase two.


Topmarks website – this website puts up its own phonics games as well as links to other websites that they recommend, some of which are listed within the list.


Family Learning – children are able to play phonic games on this website but aren’t specific to phase two so please be careful when selecting resources from here that they are appropriate for the stage of learning your child is at.


You can access phonic games on ICTGames however these are the same as ‘family learning’ website where games aren’t specific to phase two.


Please don’t forget to use resources such as ‘Pinterest’ which have lots of different ideas to make phase two phonics as interesting and interactive as possible. As teachers we spent lots of time supplementing our phonics teaching with fun hands-on activities. These can keep your children busy and quite often can be made with basic materials found within the home. You don’t have to buy resources to make phonics engaging. The following links are not endorsements but examples available – there are plenty more if you type in ‘phonics phase 2’.